Upload time：2019/12/4 11:30:54 Number of visits：199
The Ministry of Emergency Management, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and the Ministry of Education have jointly issued the "Opinions on the Implementation of the Action Plan for the Promotion of Safety Skills in High-Risk Industries" (hereinafter referred to as "Opinions"). What is the overall quality of employees in high-risk industries in China? How to make up for the shortcomings of the safety and quality of employees in high-risk industries? The heads of relevant departments interpreted it.
Insufficient safety skills of employees, becoming a "development pain" in high-risk industries
Traditional high-risk industries such as chemical and hazardous chemicals, coal mines, non-coal mines, and metal smelting are the basic industries for China's economic and social development. But for a long time, the more severe security situation has become a pain in the development of high-risk industries.
"At present, some accidents have exposed the shortcomings of inadequate safety skills of employees in high-risk industries." Pei Wentian, director of the Department of Safety Basics of the Emergency Management Department, analyzed that there are three main reasons-
The educational level of the workforce is low. According to statistics, of the 18 million employees in five industries including hazardous chemicals, coal mines, non-coal mines, metal smelting, and fireworks in China, the proportion of junior high school education and below has reached 34%, of which only about 20% of people accept Passed formal vocational skills training, about 10 percentage points lower than the national average.
The proportion of “zero-based” migrant workers is high. In the process of rapid urbanization, a large number of migrant workers with “zero basis” safety skills have become industrial workers, accounting for about 40% of employees in high-risk industries. Especially in small coal mines, small mines, and small chemical companies, and these small business accidents account for more than 80% of the total accidents in related industries.
Safety training is not in place. In particular, some small and medium-sized high-risk enterprises do not have the ability to train themselves, and are reluctant to invest funds for training. The problems of non-training, fake training, and low-standard training are prominent.
"Traditional high-risk industries are basic industries, and it is necessary to make up for shortcomings in the safety skills of employees." Pei Wentian said that to take advantage of the opportunity of vocational skills to improve action, we must focus on the development of new employee safety skills training. The team leader and special operators have improved their safety skills, and integrated the knowledge of production safety throughout the entire vocational training process to prevent and curb production safety accidents from the source.
Who will train?
Establish a long-term mechanism with enterprises as the main body of training services and the integration of production and education
The "Opinions" proposes that capable enterprises should be encouraged to train independently, and enterprises that do not have the ability to entrust capable units to provide customized training services. Why should companies be the subject of implementation?
"Enterprises are the main employers, and they know what kind of talents and training skills are needed." Pei Wentian said that in the past, some safety supervision departments organized the training of front-line employees' safety skills. The training has become a "flower rack" that sounds unpleasant, and everything is correct but not useful.
In addition, the enterprise is the main body responsible for production safety. Even if a professional organization is entrusted to provide production safety technology and management services, the responsibility for ensuring production safety is still borne by the enterprise itself. In other words, enterprise safety training can be entrusted, but the responsibility for training in place cannot be dismissed, thus forcing companies to choose high-quality training institutions to provide services.
For small, medium and micro enterprises with no training ability, how should they implement training?
According to the "Opinions", for other enterprises that do not have the ability, they must entrust capable enterprises or institutions to provide long-term, tailor-made training and assessment services. In this regard, it is required that the entrusted institutions must enter the enterprise and design the training and examination content in a targeted manner according to the actual situation on the site, and cannot "make a universal course win the world."
In order to establish a long-term training mechanism, it will also actively promote the integration of industry and education. It is understood that China currently has 1,418 vocational colleges, 10,200 secondary vocational schools, and 2,379 technical schools. Through policy incentives, they should be guided to serve safety skills training in high-risk industries.
For coal mines, Sun Hongling, the person in charge of the Industry Safety Basics Management Guidance Department of the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety, said, "The next step will be to strengthen the coalition of coal mine companies with counterpart schools, and vigorously promote order-based training and commission training. By the end of 2021, , And strive to basically transform coal mining enterprises into recruitment. "
How to implement it?
High-risk enterprises enjoy preferential taxation for training funds, and inclusive policies support employee training
Will large-scale training increase the burden on enterprises, and how can we mobilize the enthusiasm of enterprises and make policies really come to fruition? Wang Xiaojun, deputy director of the Department of Occupational Capacity Building of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Affairs, responded that the Opinions provide policy support in many aspects. "At the macro level, considering the gap between local price levels and the size of the unemployment insurance fund, jointly formulate specific training subsidy conditions and standards. At the enterprise level, companies will fully arrange safety skills training funds and will enjoy corresponding tax benefits."
In addition to enterprises, employees of high-risk enterprises can enjoy subsidies if they want to participate in training. This year's "Government Work Report" clearly proposed that 100 billion yuan should be taken from the balance of the unemployment insurance fund for more than 15 million employees' skills training and job transfer training.
Wang Xiaojun introduced that for safety skills improvement training in high-risk industries, it means that poor vocational laborers, migrant workers, unemployed people, the disabled and other groups can enjoy free vocational training. In terms of staff training, policy inclusiveness and full coverage have been basically achieved.
Upgrading safety skills is a long-term project. The next step will be to build an industrial worker team training mechanism. Promote a new type of apprenticeship in new recruits for high-skilled skills-operated positions, and fundamentally change the recruitment mechanism for key positions in high-risk industries.
"The shortcomings of inadequate safety skills of employees in high-risk industries have long-term accumulation. With the development of the industry and technological advances, it is necessary to persevere." Pei Wentian said that in the long run, according to the needs of industrial transformation and upgrading of high-risk industries and security development needs, Build knowledge-based, skill-based, and innovative high-quality industrial workers.